Психология взаимоотношений

Психология взаимоотношений мужчины и женщины


THE MANAGED HEART

Positional and Personal Control Systems

  Element Compared Main means of social control Positional Control System Manipulation of incentives and social coercion Personal Control System Persuasion and manipulation of incentives Aim of social control Behavior Feelings, thoughts, and intentions Psychological habits developed Learn obedience in behavior and outward action. Emotion work less necessary Learn to be subject to persuasion, learn […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »

JOBS AND EMOTIONAL LABOR

Of the twelve standard occupational groups used by the U. S. Census, six contain the majority of jobs that call for emo­tional labor, as defined in Chapter Seven. These six groups, summarized in Table 1, are as follows: professional and technical workers, managers and administrators, sales work­ers, clerical workers, and service workers of two types […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »

NAMED AND UNNAMED WAYS OF SEEING

We do not have names for all the possible combinations of primary and background focuses. No one culture has a mo­nopoly on emotions, and each culture may offer its own unique feelings. As the Czech novelist Milan Kundera wrote in The Book of Laughter and Forgetting: “Litost is a Czech word with no exact translation […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »

. NAMING FEELING

In Appendix A, I offer a review of research on emotion and my own three-part account of emotion. In this appendix, I examine the principle according to which we name feeling. To name a feeling is to name our way of seeing something, to label our perception[34] As we see in Appendix A, perception is […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »

A NEW SOCIAL THEORY OF EMOTION

Goffman has carried the conceptual heritage of Dewey and of Gerth and Mills as far as he can without leaving his behavior­ism and his “moments and their men” perspective. But now we need a theory that allows us to see how institutions—such as corporations—control us not simply through their surveil­lance of our behavior but through […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »

THE INTERACTIONAL MODEL

The organismic view reduces us to an elicitation-expression model. The interactional model presupposes biology but adds more points to social entry: social factors enter not simply before and after but interactively during the experi­ence of emotion. Let us say that a man becomes violently angry when insulted. What, in his cultural milieu, consti­tutes an insult? […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »

THE ORGANISMIC MODEL

Charles Darwin. Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) has offered a model of emotion for vari­ous other theorists and researchers. Darwin focuses on emo­tive expressions—that is, on visible gestures—and not on the subjective meanings associated with them. These gestures, he posits, were acquired during a prehistoric period and have survived […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »

TWO MODELS OF EMOTION

Two basic models of emotion have emerged in the last cen­tury. From the work of Charles Darwin, William James, and the early Sigmund Freud, an organismic model appears.* * McDougall (1937, 1948) and Tomkins (1962) have also contributed to the or­ganismic model of emotion. Although Tomkins’s theory covers a broad range of From the works […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »

MODELS OF EMOTION From Darwin to Goffman

Most of the arguments about specific aspects of emotion can be traced to a more fundamental difference between what may be called the organismic and the interactional view­points. Before I summarize these viewpoints and state my own position, it will be useful to acknowledge two barriers to any serious inquiry on this matter: first, the […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »

AFTERWORD TO THE TWENTIETH. ANNIVERSARY EDITION

After The Managed Heart first appeared, I began to receive visits from flight attendants, nurses, and others who did emotional labor for a living and to receive long letters from scholars who wanted to study it. From both, I learned much more about emotional labor than I knew when I wrote the book. Some flight […]

Posted in THE MANAGED HEART | No Comments »